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Why is the voltage in China 220V?

Views: 3     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-10-25      Origin: zhihu

Due to the different power environments in different countries and regions in the world, there are also differences in civil voltage, and the voltage application range of electrical appliances in various countries is also different. Let us first look at a group of national voltage conditions of civil electricity:

100V: Japan, North Korea (2 countries only)

110~130V: about 30 countries (regions) such as the United States, Canada, Panama, Cuba, Lebanon, Mexico, etc.

220~230V: Britain, Germany, France, China, Singapore, Italy, Spain, Greece, Austria, Netherlands, Thailand, Norway, Singapore, India, etc. 120 countries.

In countries that use 220-230V voltage, there are also situations where 110-130V voltage is used according to specific needs, such as Sweden and Russia.

Many people wonder, The voltage is lower and it seems to be safer, so why is the standard voltage of electricity in China 220V?

Now let's review the history of voltage: the story of the development of 220v and 110v.

First of all, let's start with the two protagonists of the AC-DC war.

In the early history of electricity use, Edison's General Electric Company first used 110V voltage to supply DC power to customers in the United States.

220V power

In the next few years, Tesla invented the 240v ac power supply , but he also reduced the voltage to 110V for safety reasons, and finally, with the support of Westinghouse Electric Company, his AC system became the power supply standard in the United States. 110V/60Hz specification.

Due to the lower voltage of 110V, the current is larger than that of 220V under the same power, more copper is used, and the transmission loss of the power grid is larger, so the German AEG company, which was in a European monopoly at that time, led the voltage specification to 220V, and the technical transformation was relatively simple. This voltage specification is doubled by 110V, so the 220V/50Hz AC grid standard has been formed in European countries. Because there are not many power facilities and electrical equipment in Europe after World War II, the cost of this change is not very big.

Later, the United States also considered switching to 220V, but with the increase in household appliances that adapt to 110V voltage in the family, the best time has been missed. If the voltage specification is forcibly changed, a large number of active electrical appliances and equipment will be eliminated, causing too much waste, so in the end The solution is: 220V power enters the home and then is divided into 110V to power most electrical appliances, while high-power appliances such as electric stoves and electric dryers use 220V.

Electricity appeared in China's semi-colonial period. The earliest AC power grid did not have a unified standard, but only a partial small power grid. The equipment was provided by various developed industrial countries, and the specifications were naturally varied. After 1949, China's industrialization turned to the Soviet model in an all-round way. It also followed the Soviet standard, and the Soviet Union also adopted the European standard, so 220V/50Hz was finally set as China's power grid standard.

So, why did China choose 220V/50Hz as the mains standard? Mainly because:

(1) For the same power transmission, 220V power has less loss than 110V.

(2) The voltage is doubled, which can save half the cross-sectional area of the transmission line.

(3) Considering the actual line interference and loss, the distance of high-voltage transmission is longer.

(4) The 220V mains power is 50Hz. Compared with the 110V frequency of 60Hz, the power-to-volume ratio of the motor is smaller, which can save a lot of materials for making the motor.

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